The Dyke <p>The Dyke is a refereed journal that publishes original articles from the fields of Social Sciences, Commerce, Humanities and Education.</p> Midlands State University Press en-US The Dyke 1815-9036 Indigenous beliefs and Zimbabwe’s War of Liberation: Inside the metaphysics <p>This paper recorded mysterious and miraculous events of the liberation war as expressed by those who were combatants on either side of the conflict during Zimbabwe’s liberation war. The paper comes as a realization that many such ex-fighters and those who worked with them still feel that they were greatly assisted by the spirit world. Listening to their narration of myths, beliefs and taboos indicated that the war was largely fought on the spiritual front. One area discussed in this paper is the northeast because this is where the medium of Nehanda lived before she was taken to Chifombo by ZANLA guerrillas. A lot of spirit mediums from the same area also joined guerrillas in Mozambique, in order to entrench the importance of their metaphysical powers to guerrillas and refugees. In addition, the special collaboration between ZANLA commanders and spirit mediums in the early 1970s makes it imperative to find out if the taboos of the liberation struggle had any bearing on events that guerrillas encountered in the war of liberation. As such, information for this paper initially came from ZANLA in Mount Darwin and Bindura and also from ZPRA veterans as well as former auxiliaries in Mashonaland West Province and to a lesser extent Bulawayo. Information for this paper was further collected through studies of secondary sources and oral interviews with wartime civilians. The paper is divided into 4 main sections. The first section deals with the ways in which the spirit world communicates with the living as understood by the Shona. Second, it reviews knowledge on the development of relationships between ZANU-PF and spirit mediums and what elements of the spirit world were emphasized during training. When guerrillas went to the front, they were 'guided' by the same spirit which enabled them to witness many ‘miracles’. Even civilians also talk of miracles of their own. Thus the third section deals with ways in which the metaphysical world manifested itself and how it regulated the behaviour of combatants from any of the forces involved in the war. Last, the paper looks at the legacy of such beliefs to those who experienced the war. It is the intention of this paper to touch on these issues as far as they are healing to the souls of many who still strongly believe in traditional religion and for the sole purpose of recording these important so far little studied episodes of the liberation war.</p> Joshua Chakawa Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 15 1 1 15 Mendacious Conservation and Poetic Justice In Nadine Gordiemr's The Conservationist: A Postcolonial Ecocritical Reading <p>Nadine Gordimer’s <em>The Conservationist</em> (1974) engages with the conservation of nature under apartheid South Africa. The novel’s portrayal of the policy of land ownership and use under this period signifies the deep issues of racism which many critics have exposed in relation to Gordimer’s writings. In this article, I shift focus to the novel’s engagement with conservation in a theoretical context drawn from insights in postcolonial ecocriticism, and political ecology. These highlight the joint exploitation of nature and the victimisation of people who lack access to political and economic power. While my analysis concentrates on the ecopolitical force of the narrative, I also examine the novel’s deployment of irony as a key device that exposes the racist/classist underpinnings of the politics of conservation, as well as invests agency, and power to the exploited parties. I conclude by pointing out that Gordimer’s engagement with conservation, in <em>The Conservationist</em>, is in tune with the precept of postcolonial ecocriticism, which postulates that the literature of a postcolonial society should not only portray the exploitation of nature, and the poor, but also advocate for justice. In <em>The Conservationist</em>, Gordimer demonstrates the power of imaginative writing to advocate for nature, the poor, and the oppressed.</p> ZAYNAB ANGO Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 15 1 16 33 The evolution of music recording technologies in Zimbabwe <p>Music recording technology has undergone a paradigm shift in the Zimbabwe record industry. There has been a transition from the use of analogue to digital recording technology. The study borrows the Technological Determinism theory to explore the evolution from analogue to digital of the record industry. Analogue technology was used from 1956 to the 1990s and songs were recorded on a reel and stored on vinyl discs. Later the compact disc (CD) storage was introduced. After the CD files began to be shared as soft copies from recording studios to consumers. Recording studios in Zimbabwe have embraced digital technology as music is created and distributed in the digital realm. We deployed a qualitative methodology to purposively gather data from record producers, studio owners and musicians to analyse changes in the Zimbabwe record industry. Technological complexity, sophistication dexterity, innovativeness and knowledgeability of producers now determines the quality of music productions. In this article, we explore the shifting of recording processes from analogue to digital in Zimbabwean studios. The study reveals that technological developments directly impact the modus operandi and determine the relevance and business viability of the Zimbabwean music recording landscape.</p> Weston Chimbudzi Richard Muranda Wonder Maguraushe Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 15 1 34 50 Duramazwi reUtano neUrapi and Denhe reUtano neUrapi <p>That a significant step in the development of medical terminology in <em>Chi</em>Shona is taking place is indicated by the emergence of yet another <em>Duramazwi reUtano.</em> This is accomponied by a <em>Denhe reUrapi neUtano</em>. Old words, now not in common use, are brought back, and new words, are emerging by a variety of routes such as translations and new coinages. While Dr Manyame's efforts are those of an individual medical professional, it is time others came to the table. These may include health workers of all descriptions, and language experts, and enthusiasts as well.</p> Farai Daniel Madzimbamuto Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 15 1 51 55 An epidemic within a pandemic of women, children and domestic violence: A case of Zimbabwe from 2020-2021 <p>The current global Covid-19 pandemic has not spared Zimbabwe from the impact of domestic violence against women and girls. To curtail the spread of the covid-19 virus, the government of Zimbabwe enforced restrictions on movements causing an epidemic of gender-based violence. The trend became ‘an epidemic within a pandemic’ against women and children. Emerging evidence reflects that lockdown affected economic growth and increased poverty caused inability for women to escape from abusive partners; ineffective health, and law enforcement service delivery. As a result, unequal gender relations, and patriarchal norms against women became prominent. Identified forms of domestic violence are physical, sexual, economic, and psychological abuse leading to deaths, injuries, commercial sex work, stress, early marriages, and unwanted pregnancies; child labour, and sexually transmitted infections. The study identified government, church, policy-makers and non-governmental organisations, donors, and women’s organizations as institutions with possible solutions. The study argues that the domestic violence epidemic has been exposed, and been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, hence multifaceted intervention strategies are needed to safeguard vulnerable groups. Strategies comprise psychosocial support, use of social media to disclose domestic violence, effective legal and justice system operations, inclusivity in policy-making, and implementation process, economic empowerment for income-generating projects, and provision of an effective health delivery system. Complexities that hinder effective intervention against domestic violence were also identified. Hence, the study recommends that stakeholders ensure that necessary services remain accessible. Also, adequate funding to enable high quality of domestic violence interventions, prioritise prevention, response, and risk mitigation activities as part of stakeholders’ objectives in humanitarian programs and inclusivity of women, and girls in policy-making, and implementation. The study adopts a qualitative approach. Under current lockdown conditions, desk review, official and media reports analysis on the topic; WhatsApp interviews with key selected informants were used.</p> <p> </p> Joseph Muwanzi Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1 56 70 The blended approach as an avenue for equity amid covid-19 and future emergencies: Refining pedagogical approaches in higher education <p>Education systems around the world have been faced with unprecedented challenges as the delivery of education massively shifted to online learning solutions due to the sudden and widespread closure of schools following the outbreak of covid-19 in December 2019. Using Bourdieu’s lens, this qualitative case study employed observations and WhatsApp discussions to analyse the university student’s narratives on the rise of social and cultural reproduction in HE; and the prospects of the blended approach as an avenue for equity amid covid-19 and future emergencies. Ten students, drawn from one purposively selected Zimbabwean university, residing in diverse geographical areas and from different socio-economic backgrounds participated in the study. Findings submit that while<br />the online teaching presents itself as a reasonable alternative in the middle of covid-19 pandemic and beyond, this reinforces the social position of the elite while the poor anchor the base. The study implores the governments of developing countries through their education departments to refine pedagogical approaches in higher education by using the blended approaches to level the learning terrain dominated by the rich. The rationale for this article is thus to contribute towards the need for consistent equality of opportunities in HE considering the impact of covid-19 and possible futuristic emergencies.</p> Pfuurai Chimbunde Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 15 1 71 84 Domestic tourism promotion strategies during and after the Covid-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe <p>The Covid-19 induced lockdowns, including the closure of national borders, have created opportunities for innovative destination marketers to optimise the involvement of their nationals in domestic tourism. A qualitative approach in which 15 in-depth interviews with expert informants were carried out online using WhatsApp Video Calling, this study sought to identify domestic tourism promotion strategies in Zimbabwe. The expert informants were purposively sampled from tourism-related government departments, tourism parastatals, private sector tourism representative organisations, publicity associations, and tourism operators. Data was thematically analysed. The main identified strategies to promote domestic tourism in Zimbabwe during and post Covid-19 pandemic include making tourism products affordable and accessible, improving the income levels of Zimbabweans, developing appealing packages, and programs; tapping into the visiting friends and relatives market, embarking on aggressive marketing campaigns, introducing incentive travel particularly for civil servants, and a continued commitment to the observance of all Covid-19 prevention, and treatment guidelines. The study implications are that in Zimbabwe, it is imperative for the government, the private sector, and the community, to partner in various ways and at different levels in implementing these strategies to promote domestic tourism in the country.</p> Phanos Matura Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 15 1 85 103 Covid-19 pandemic and women’s vulnerabilities in Zimbabwe <p>While the Covid-19 pandemic affects the health and well-being of all, women and girls are disproportionately affected, especially in developing countries. Thus, the desk review sought to establish women’s vulnerabilities in face of the Covid-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe. The intersectional thinking was used to analyse and conclude the study. It emerged from the analysis that while the measures instituted to combat Covid-19 including calls for social distancing, quarantining and lockdowns remain key, they have disproportionately affected women’s socio-economic well-being exacerbating the long-standing gender inequalities. As shown by intersectional feminism, women and girls’ social identities overlap, and compound with pre-existing inequalities that subjugate them in society including patriarchy, culture, religion, and poverty to limit women’s community and personal security, access to employment and income, safety nets, and sexual and reproductive health. The study recommends gender mainstreaming in socio-economic response measures by state and non-state actors during, and after the Covid-19 pandemic.</p> Cowen Dziva Idaishe Zhou Ellen Farisayi Zvobgo Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 15 1 104 115 The role of community participation in solid waste management in Zimbabwe: The case of Nyanga township <p>The study was conducted in Nyanga rural district council which has the mandate to run the affairs of Nyanga township. The research focused on the role of community participation in improving solid waste management in Nyanga township. The research was based on a descriptive survey with clusters and simple random sampling being used to come up with subjects for the study. Triangulation of data collection tools was also employed to ensure reliability and validity of the results, although the aspect of literacy is a key assumption on the use of questionnaires amongst communities. Improper solid waste management is a public health disaster risk that has largely been attributed to the historical bubonic plague in the developed world as well as the recent epidemics of cholera and typhoid in Zimbabwean cities, including the study area. The involvement of NGOs and WASH Projects in Nyanga largely, led to the reduction of illegal dumpsites, with community and school health clubs having played a pivotal role in promoting responsible citizenry. It was noted that separation of waste particularly at the household level was not being done, thereby exacerbating waste generation. The enforcement of relevant legislation on solid waste management was fragmented, with Environmental Management Act being enforced partly by EMA officials mainly towards corporate, industries, and not individuals. Other relevant actors like the Ministry of Health administers, Public Health Act and urban councils Act, parallel to the EMA statutes. Nyanga Rural District Council has to come up with specific by-laws on solid waste management and capacity building to enhance the sustainability of community health clubs and other community sustainable integrated solid waste management initiatives. The research focused on the role of community participation in solid waste management initiatives by individuals, community groups, or community-based organisations. </p> Robert Muzvondiwa Copyright (c) 2021 The Dyke 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 15 1 116 130