The Dyke <p>The Dyke is an open-access refereed journal that publishes original articles from the fields of Social Sciences, Business Sciences, Arts &amp; Humanities, and Education.</p> Midlands State University Press en-US The Dyke 1815-9036 Flint stone shards (microliths) scattered near a cave in Matopos, Matabeleland – An ancient historical find <p>A visit to a batholith cave in Matopos in Zimbabwe revealed the presence of a significant quantity of microliths. These were collected and studied and suggestions on their use by stone age people were proposed.</p> Ross G. Cooper Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2003-10-19 2003-10-19 16 3 1 6 Comparative analysis of knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-positive and HIV-negative youths in Zimbabwe <p>This study sought to investigate knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female youths in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional mixed-method research design was employed in the study. This study used probability proportional to size sampling to select a sample of 399 YLHIV (Young People Living with HIV and 201 HIV-negative youths. The HIV-negative youth population was sampled from the general population, while Youths living with HIV (YLHIV) were sampled from clinic records. This study was conducted in three provinces: Matabeleland South, Harare, and Manicaland. The study administered 600 questionnaires and conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs). Percentages, frequencies, cross-tabulations, chi-square p-values, and z-test p-values were utilised to present the quantitative analysis. FGD data was analysed using thematic analysis. The study demonstrated that knowledge of cervical cancer was fairly low among the youth, with YLHIV more likely to know about cervical cancer, 36%, compared to HIV-negative youths, 27%. The study also showed that older youths aged 20-24 years were more likely to demonstrate knowledge of cervical cancer, 44%, compared to those aged 15-19 years, 22%. The majority of youths reported social media as the major source of information about cervical cancer, 63%. The study concluded that the level of knowledge on cervical cancer was fairly low among the youth. The study recommends that reproductive health programming should address issues with cervical cancer awareness to halt the burden of cervical cancer in Zimbabwe.</p> Amos Milanzi Marvellous Mhloyi Stanzia Moyo Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 24 When a smallholder farmer goes to the bank: Financial inclusion and farmers in Gokwe South District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. <p>Economic development is linked to the financial inclusion of citizens in national and global economies. Financial development is generally thought to promote economic growth for households and countries. Regarding farmers in Zimbabwe, financial inclusion has been widely discussed as a critical aspect of fostering smallholder financial stability and economic development. Notwithstanding access to fertile land, and mitigation of climate challenges, among other issues unique to farmers, this paper explores financial management challenges experienced by smallholder farmers, within the context of financial inclusion to establish how farmers fair in this regard. Adopting a qualitative approach underpinned by an interpretive paradigm, the study used a case study design wherein Gokwe South District was taken as the case with a total population of 62,000 smallholder farmers from the 33 wards. Ten stakeholders in smallholder farming constituted the sample and participants with 3-20 years experience in farming were purposively selected with data generated through semi-structured interviews. Results show that farmers face many challenges notably, that most of them have no bank accounts, and those who have, accounts are inactive. They lack confidence in the monetary system signaled by unfavorable withdrawal limits, accessibility challenges, mode of payments, and exorbitant bank charges. They also lack financial management and record-keeping skills. It is, thus, recommended that financial institutions design strategies that cater for marginalised economic groups, such as smallholder farmers to encourage and promote financial inclusion. These include, the establishment of financial inclusion hubs, provision of low-cost bank accounts and agency banking considered a measure that could be put in place to financially include smallholder farmers. In addition, farmers need to be trained in areas of financial management. Furthermore, there is a need for policy adjustments to accommodate the financial inclusion of smallholder farming practices, as a business.</p> Tsitsi L. Senga Elliot M. Masocha Wonder Dzimiri Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-01-28 2023-01-28 16 3 1 36 Covid-19: Impact on religion and spirituality in Zimbabwe <p>In an attempt to come up with an informed interpretation of Christian spirituality within the Corona Virus pandemic (Covid-19), this article addresses the following objectives; reflection on theodicy, why God allowed Covid-19 to happen, exposing how Christian community reacted to the phenomenon and assessing Christianity as a complementary medicine during the prevalence of the pandemic virus. Mixed method design of the qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted with a sample size constituting 14 participants. The primary and secondary data were sourced from the bible, newspapers, articles, internet material as well as telephone interviews. The study found that the experiences of Covid-19 implied affirmations that God punishes the humanity against sin, fulfils biblical prophecies, posed trial and spiritual growth and insinuated that it was God pulling the church and state to the round table. Other issues are that the church got to appropriate and maximise the technological era, partake in the paradigm shift of religious worship in traditions and practices and God’s intervention. The study concludes that humanity is religious and Christian religion provided the necessary remedy, such as healing, to cope with Covid-19.</p> Joseph Muwanzi Peter Masvotore Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 15 A synoptic history of ‘the scientific method’ with reflections on the scientific terms that emerged from the Greek, Arabic and Latin languages and pointers for ChiShona. <p>(Rupfupi):</p> <p>The ‘scientific method’ as a system of knowledge creation and organisation emerged principally in the last thousand years, although its history can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. It is a formal process which starts with formulating a hypothesis, then developing a method of testing the hypothesis, followed by observation (data collecting) and analysis, ending in a conclusion which should be a starting point for new hypotheses. Scientific terms often represent a concentration of ideas or exactness of expression in a discipline. Scientific terminology in European languages uses Greek and Latin roots, even today, because these were the languages of learning in Europe at the time when science experienced its greatest development. Arabic was a major source language for scientific and mathematical terms, bequeathing to English ‘chemistry’ and ‘algebra’ among others, while itself borrowed from Greek. Going back to the beginning of the scientific concepts is an established practice in science for exploring words, their old uses and potential new uses. A term, such as ‘mathematics’ or ‘atom’ today stands at some distance from what it meant even a hundred years ago. There is room therefore for building words and terminology from the ground up, or inside out, from the early meaning of the source words. This can give a different perspective and useful insight for how a language such as <em>Chi</em>Shona can build scientific words. The history of the ‘scientific method’ is illustrative of the process of how words in common use became the essential building blocks of vocabulary of science. The essay focuses on the essential foundation concepts and words of science and how many of these are already present in <em>Chi</em>Shona and can be mobilised for the scientific discourse. A glossary and appendix are provided in the supplementary material.</p> Farai Daniel Madzimbamuto Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 21 Demystifying education for the development of underdevelopment: A critical expose’ of Paulo Freire (1990)’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed <p>This paper interrogates Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (1921-1997) book, <em>Pedagogy of the </em><em style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Oppressed</em><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> in relation to the current Zimbabwean education system. The authors </span>believe that the education system is still rooted in the colonial education system, four decades after attaining independence. Although concepts such as Education 5.0, together with the new curriculum have been implemented in the education sector, the subjects’ content do not subscribe to the idea of industrialisation, research and innovation thus maintaining in the students, the colonial culture of domination, subordination and subjugation. Freire considers the education system as an instrument for social transformation, that can promote revolutionary social change, a situation urgently needed in the current Zimbabwean education system. Pedagogy of the Oppressed can be regarded as a struggle against mental colonisation and social annihilation and a positive path towards mental emancipation and total empowerment. The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent to which the new Zimbabwean curriculum is being used as a tool to emancipate students as the education sector embraces the concept of Education 5.0 with a special focus on the high school history subject. The study adopted a qualitative approach located within the contours of interpretivism to analyse Freire’s ideas on education of the oppressed masses. The study found that the current education system still entraps students in the colonial thinking of completing studies and finding employment rather than creating employment<em>.</em></p> Modester Dadirai Ngwerume Tenson Tawanda Mugodzwa Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 17 Headman Mzilawempi’s eviction from Rhodesdale Estate in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and the struggle for restoration of lost status—1953-2021 <p>This article discusses the enduring effects of traditional leadership demotion and forced migration in Zimbabwe. It draws from the experiences of headman Mzilawempi and his people who were evicted from Rhodesdale Estate in 1953 and relocated to Hurungwe District, Mashonaland West Province whereupon Mzilawempi was downgraded from the position of a chief to a headman. The study addresses how the relegation continued to impact Mzilawempi chiefdom/headmanship and the ways in which colonial reconfigurations of traditional posts haunt Zimbabwe today. We examined mechanisms that have been utilized by Mzilawempi and his people in their struggle for elevation to the position of chief since coming to the Hurungwe district. This qualitative research concluded that the demotion of the traditional leader led to increased differences with the minority regime, challenges of asserting authority in the new destination by Mzilawempi culminating in demands by the incumbent headman for elevation by the Zimbabwean government partly using post-2000 newly resettled adjoining former white commercial farms as a further justification for a bigger title. From 2019, the struggle for Mzilawempi’s reinstatement led his people to constitute themselves into a committee to map and lead the struggle. That committee was seeking to have Mzilawempi elevated to the position of chief at the time of undertaking this research.</p> Joshua Chakawa Alfred Magudhu Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 21 The Covid-19 pandemic on cultural heritage tourism in Zimbabwe: Post-Covid-19 recovery strategies <p>This article interrogates how the world’s cultural and heritage tourism destinations’ performance was affected following the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2019. Various studies have been undertaken on the impacts of Covid-19 and post recovering strategies for cultural heritage tourism, especially in developed destinations with little attention given to developing destinations like Zimbabwe. This research assesses the impact of Covid-19 on tangible cultural and heritage tourism in Zimbabwe. It also proffers post-Covid-19 pandemic strategies for the segment under National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe (NMMZ). A qualitative approach was adopted and online interviews were conducted with frontline staff. Thematic analysis was employed to report the results. The results revealed that the employment of core employees was stable with salary delays, forced paid leave, and/or no transport allowances. On the other hand, most casual employees’ contracts were terminated. Loss of tourism revenue, deferment of projects, and cancellation of marketing activities, vandalism, and increased poaching were reported among five regions of the NMMZ. After the relaxation of lockdown measures, NMMZ started operating while adhering to WHO Covid-19 health and safety regulations. This brought a slight positive change in domestic tourists with a huge negative change in international tourists. The study, therefore, recommends social media usage, diversification, and branding (SDB) destination recovery strategy as well as promotion of local travel to sustain cultural heritage tourism in Zimbabwe.</p> Tendai Chibaya Dennis Mashoko Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 21 Challenges faced by secondary school girls who stay far away from schools in Gokwe South District <p>This paper explores, and shares, sorrowful circumstances school girls walking long distances to school in Gokwe South are exposed to. The article provides some insights on the challenges faced by school girls to access schooling in Gokwe South District of Zimbabwe. The article is a reaction to the rising concerns over the challenges bedevilling rural school girls and education. Three secondary schools out of nine with girl learners who walk long distances were purposively selected. The school heads of those schools automatically qualified as participants of the study. Six teachers out of 36, two from each school, (one male one female) were purposively selected to take part in the study. Six rural girl-learners, out of 32 rural girl learners who walk long distances to and from school each day, were randomly selected using the hat system. The qualitative research method was used with phenomenology being chosen as the research design. Interviews were used to collect data from the school heads, teachers and the girl learners. Observation and document analysis were also used for data triangulation. A number of findings emanated from this study. It was noted that rural girl learners mostly arrive at school tied and dirty ad are ever absent at school. The study also found out that sexual child abuse was common to which the girls are exposed to along the way, to-and-from school resulting in unwanted pregnancies. The study concluded that the community in general, and parents of affected girls in particular, the government and other responsible authorities, including the girls themselves should collaborate to address the challenges. The study recommended that funding should be availed towards construction of satellite schools in Gokwe South District in Zimbabwe.</p> Charity Chiromo Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 16 3 1 12 Conditions characterising transaction costs in multi-campus systems in developing institutions of higher learning. The Case of Great Zimbabwe University <p>The study assesses conditions characterising transaction costs associated with the multi-campus system at the Great Zimbabwe University. Transaction cost as new institutional economics has been undermined and received no direct research attention nor has the nexus of the two phenomena been theorised in Zimbabwe. This resulted in a lack of consideration of local conditions characterising school teaching and learning operations. A case study was used in order to explore and describe events and experiences by individual lecturers. In this regard, the research was carried out at three centres; Centre for Gender and Culture Studies, School of Social Science and the Great Zimbabwe University Main Campus. Using interviews and focused group discussions, while thematic content analysis, findings revealed that multi-campus seems to fit rather well with the lone star model, based on its decentralisation with specialisation or related degree programmes and support services for students. The morphology of the campuses of Social Sciences has affected the infrastructural, organisational and social network costs affecting lecturers’ teaching, research and university service. Participatory action and learning of the members of staff are needed for them to feel responsible, and accountable for whatever the university administration has done. Efficient and effective shuttle facilities should be availed to lecturers of the School of Social Science for them to access all required and necessary support services for their effective delivery of teaching, research and university service.</p> Benard Chazovachii Andrew Chindanya Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 16 3 1 17 Interrogating Educators Conceptualisation/Understanding of the Results Based Management System (RBM): A Case of Two Schools in Zimbabwe. <p>This study sought to interrogate educators understanding of the Results Based Management System as a performance management tool in the schools sector in the Seke district of Zimbabwe’s Mashonaland East Province. This was a qualitative case study of two schools, one primary and the other secondary. The case under study was the Results Based Management System. Participants were selected through purposive sampling on the basis of their relevance to the study given their active role in the implementation of the RBM in schools. Underpinned by&nbsp;the interpretivism paradigm, a case study design was adopted wherein data were generated through in-depth interviews with thirty –three educators, two focus groups of eight members each, observation of educators’ attitudes and behavior towards RBM, and document analysis of educators’ work plans. Thus, to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings, method triangulation was employed. In line with the qualitative approach employed in this study, data analysis entailed a thematic approach where emerging data were coded and grouped around recurring themes. Analysis proceeded with data generation. The results of the study revealed that educators had a diverse understanding of the results-based management system. They also did not understand the Results-Based Personnel Performance System as the basis of their performance assessment. This was a potential threat to the effective implementation of the RBM System. The study recommends that continuous training be done to help educators conceptualise the RBM System.</p> Ruth Jaricha Wonder Dzimiri Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 16 3 1 20 Entrepreneurship education in Zimbabwe <p>Globally, countries have come up with strategies to assist nascent entrepreneurs in gaining and creating employment. The role played by stakeholders in supporting opportunities for self-employment is an important effort for venture creation. This study analyses the impact of entrepreneurship education curriculum with specific reference to business success and venture start-ups in the Midlands Province (Zimbabwe). The goal, however, is to determine the influence that entrepreneurship education plays in encouraging polytechnic graduates to start their enterprises during their studies and after graduating. Data was collected through a qualitative exploratory study design, with 20 participants being purposively selected for the study. Four lecturers and six students participated in face-to-face in-depth interviews. The data saturation point was arrived at the tenth interviewee and the other ten members finally participated in the interactive focus group discussions. The study discovered that entrepreneurship education curricula could not entirely modify students’ mindsets to embrace new business start-ups. Poor curriculum implementation, incompetent educators, and inadequate resources were cited as some of the reasons for failure to pursue new business ventures following graduation. Graduate students might be motivated to venture into actual business start-ups if adequate support is entirely offered. If the government of Zimbabwe offers holistic support to entrepreneurship education curriculum through a budget, it could contribute to the achievement of feasible self-employment after graduation.</p> Wilson Mabhanda Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 16 3 1 27