The Dyke <p>The Dyke is an open-access refereed journal that publishes original articles from the fields of Social Sciences, Business Sciences, Arts &amp; Humanities, and Education.</p> en-US [email protected] (Dr. U. Saidi) [email protected] (Dr. H. Mangeya) Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Redefining the gender narrative: sexual harassment and intimate partner violence in selected institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe’s tertiary institutions <p>This study explores the discourse on sexual harassment and gender-based violence among leaders, organizations and higher institutions of learning in Zimbabwe. The study seeks to challenge and understand how gender- based violence (GBV) survivors frame their understanding and experiences of sexual harassment and GBV in a tertiary institution. The Zimbabwean government approved a public sexual harassment policy and the Education Council for Higher Education should adopt the policy and monitor its implementation in tertiary institutions. The study examines intimate partner violence from an intersectional feminist perspective which views GBV as a result of patriarchy and other discriminatory and repressive practices. The paper explores the lived realities of students in tertiary institutions. A qualitative approach based on the premise that it enables the participants to share their lived experiences and reflect on their interpretations and opinions of the phenomenon in context (de Vos et al, 2014) was adopted for the study. &nbsp;&nbsp;The methods to generate data which were adopted include focus group conversations and life history narratives with women and girls. The twenty participants who participated in the study were purposively selected. Out of the study, it was&nbsp; &nbsp;established among other findings that provocative conversations or dialogues between the survivors, victims, perpetrators, faculty, management and the rest of the student body can help to understand GBV and sexual harassment. Several points of intervention to minimize gender-based violence and sexual harassment in tertiary institutions can contribute to improving the quality of higher education in Zimbabwe. &nbsp;The study recommends resources such as digital security, physical security, consultations with victims and survivors to recount their experiences in a safe and supportive environment. There should also be scaling up on counselling and allow the survivors and victims to be part of the process of effecting changes among students and faculty.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key words: intimate partner violence, sexual harassment, gender – based violence, women and girls</p> Nogget Matope, Wonder Muchabaiwa Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The prevalence of sexual harassment in institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe in the twenty-first century: Perceptions from students and lecturers in Zimbabwe State Universities <p>Sexual harassment cases are on the increase in Zimbabwean institutions of higher learning. However, very few of them are officially recorded, reported, or made public. Sexual harassment as a gender issue, is of paramount importance as it has to do with human rights, individual dignity, and psychological stability. Yet oral reflections from students indicate the soaring prevalence of sexual harassment and non-attention to the cases or rehabilitation of affected victims. This scenario requires attention, massive research, and strategies to mitigate the prevalence of sexual harassment in institutions of higher learning in order to produce all-round, robust, creative, innovative, and technologically motivated industrial graduates. This paper is of the contention that sexual harassment cases are not only prevalent but are on the increase in Zimbabwean institutions of higher learning, albeit with most of them going unreported or being swept under the carpet so as to protect the integrity, public scrutiny, and image of the institutions involved. The paper argues that male and female students, as well as lecturers, are mostly perpetrators, victims, or both of sexual harassment. The paper maintains that sexual harassment as a gender issue, is rooted in the feminist theory of gender inequality. This study is grounded in the radical and socialist feminist theories of gender inequality. The study comprised 114 students, 4 Executive Deans of students, 4 Counsellors, and 20 lecturers. The research method used was both qualitative and quantitative. The research findings revealed that sexual harassment is prevalent in Zimbabwean institutions of higher learning and that very few cases are formally reported, recorded, and made public. The study recommends that institutions of higher learning need to put in place and implement sexual harassment policies. Reporting structures must be communicated to all stakeholders and punitive measures, guidance, and counseling be availed to reduce sexual harassment issues.</p> Tenson T. Mugodzwa; Modester Dadirai Ngwerume Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Are men victims of Gender Based Violence (GBV)? Why the deafening silence among men in institutions of higher learning? <p>Gender-based violence (GBV) is a very serious pandemic that has been prevalent in society for a very long time. Its impact has been felt, and exacerbated by the Covid 19 pandemic globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have shown that women are the majority of victims of GBV. However, very little has been said about men as victims. This study helps explain why a highly literate country like Zimbabwe, has very high GBV rates. This study interrogates why men aged between 18 years and 25 years old, and attending institutions of higher learning in Harare remain mum in the face of GBV. The study adopted a qualitative research design and data was collected using focus group discussions, and semi-structured interviews. To do so effectively, 12 women and 12 men were interviewed in focus groups separately, the former, to explain why they remain silent when abused and the latter to help understand why they abuse men. The findings showed that men remained silent because of cultural norms and prejudices pertaining to masculinity, that men cannot be victims of GBV. Men also remained silent due lack of knowledge on where/how to get help as victims and the fear of emotional instability that would come once they disclose they were victims of GBV. Recommendations include having campaigns that educate that men can be victims of GBV and have more resources that help all victims of GBV.</p> Keratiloe Tsitsi Guga, Rorisang Guga, Greetings Chigonda, Shadrick Peno Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cybersexual harassment in a state university in Zimbabwe: Voices of female students <p>Social media has become a very popular means of communication between and among people as Internet use has increased globally. This means of communication has led to an upsurge in negative online behaviours such as cyber sexual harassment. Cybersexual harassment as a negative online behaviour adversely impacts university students’ well-being and interferes with their ability to learn. Whilst there has been intensive research on online sexual harassment, there is a paucity of empirical examination of cyber sexual harassment especially among female university students. Addressing cyber sexual harassment in universities is important and makes the object of this research. This case study research, therefore, investigated female undergraduate students’ experiences of cyber sexual harassment. This is a study in which the voices of cyber sexual harassment victims were captured through interviewing undergraduate female student participants. Qualitative data was collected from in-depth interviews with purposely selected undergraduate female student participants. Twenty undergraduate female students of the 2022 academic year at a selected university were purposively sampled for the study. Cybersexual harassment experiences of participants emerging from the qualitative interview exercise were: receiving explicit images and videos; being requested for sex and nude pictures by perpetrators and being subjected to sexually explicit hate speeches. In view of these findings, the recommendations of the study are that: awareness programmes should be mounted in the university to inform students about the dangers of cybersexual harassment; there is a need to educate students about their rights and dangers obtaining in cyberspace; anti-cyber sexual harassment programmes tailored for university students may be a step in the right direction; the need to encourage conversation about cybersexual harassment within the university community cannot be overemphasized.</p> Daniel Mawere Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The nexus between tertiary students’ ‘side-line’ sports chants and the perpetuation of attitudes towards gender-based violence in Zimbabwe. <p>The study explores the nexus between tertiary students‚ side-line sports chants and the perpetuation of attitudes towards gender-based violence (GBV) in Zimbabwe. Given that GBV occurs in a plethora of forms, and levels, the study submits that attitudes, and their social cultivation, are important in both the perpetration and combating of the social problem. Attitudes are critical in shaping gender relations and power matrices obtaining therein. They benchmark taken-for-granted rules of engagements as well as thresholds beyond which interventions are made from a popular perspective. Whilst there are many spaces on which these attitudes are cultivated, the present study argues that side-line sports chants, an important cultural text in any given society, provide spaces for the negotiation of gendered attitudes in any given social milieu. Thus, they function much more than simply providing support and motivation for both players and coaching staff during tertiary students’ sporting activities. The research uses purposively sampled side-line chants for analysis. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is used in unpacking the ways in which the chants shape and (re)configure gendered power relations amongst this critical demographic group.</p> Hugh Mangeya Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of the strategies used by public universities in Zimbabwe to curb sexual harassment of female undergraduate students <p>This study evaluates the effectiveness of the measures currently in place to curb sexual harassment of female undergraduate students in public universities in Zimbabwe. The study adopted a sequential explanatory research design with the aim of using a mixed research approach. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to female students and 40 interviews were conducted with lecturers from three public universities in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that sexual harassment is caused by economic hardships in the country, indecent dressing by female students, intimidation of students by lecturers, and the pressure to earn better grades. <br />The study revealed the challenges faced by public universities in Zimbabwe in curbing sexual harassment of female undergraduate students are that students do not report most of the cases of sexual harassment, perpetrators are very influential and powerful people in the universities, and lack of financial support for female students. The measures put in place to mitigate sexual harassment is punitive action against the perpetrators of sexual harassment, education of female students on how to handle the incidents of sexual harassment, availability of detained structures to report sexual harassment cases and students have been encouraged to report sexual harassment. The study further highlighted that the measures in place to curb sexual harassment of female undergraduate students in public universities of Zimbabwe are less effective because continuous indecent dressing by female students has normalised sexual harassment as a way of getting better grades. The study recommends that the university authorities should come up with a dress code policy and that the government should avail scholarships for students.</p> Givemore Moyo Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fulfilling Obligations: A gender transformative framework for enhanced prevention of gender-based violence at a university in Zimbabwe <p>Gender-based violence is a global phenomenon, and institutions of higher learning are not spared of the scourge the world over. In Zimbabwe, despite the considerable attention and increasing awareness of gender-based violence, the vice is on the rise. The contribution of this study is the gender-transformative framework it suggests can curb the menace. A Zimbabwe university formed the locus of this study. A qualitative approach was employed because the intention was to capture and concentrate on the participants’ opinions, attitudes, feelings, and emotions on the high prevalence of the scourge and from that, an evidence-guided <br />the framework that can mitigate, remedy, and prevent gender-based violence was proposed. The primary method for soliciting information from the participants was the in-depth face-to-face interview. In the study, 23 interviews were conducted with the Dean of students, three student leaders, the Registrar, and 18 students. A qualitative thematic analysis of the interview data was undertaken, and results revealed that although the university had crafted some measures and mechanisms to deal with the menace, the stumbling block was unsuccessful implementation. A gender-responsive multi-pronged framework was innovatively proffered to <br />strengthen implementation initiatives so that the vice is combated</p> Efiritha Chauraya Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A quest for a phenomenological perspective in the fight against gender-based violence in Zimbabwean tertiary institutions: A replica of Tamar and Amnon saga. <p>Violence against women and men is considered a grave violation of human rights. Gender-based violence can occur anywhere around the world regardless of age, race, religion, and even academic qualification. Gender-based violence includes any conduct which may lead to psychological, physical, emotional, or sexual harm to men or women. In its worst form, gender-based violence may lead to death. Considering the prevalence of gender-based violence in various facets of life, tertiary institutions in Zimbabwe cannot be regarded as immune to this phenomenon. Drawing from the Amnon and Tarma saga, the aim of this study develops an understanding of the experiences of gender-based violence victims. The study utilised the qualitative research design in which participants’ perceptions, feelings, and opinions were explored. The paper posits that female students are subjected to gender-based violence due to a lack of information on gender-based violence, short time benefits, trust, and persuasive and manipulative means. There is a need to come up with mechanisms that promote sharing of experiences with the hope of justice, and healing, for the benefit of gender-based violence victims.</p> Lucky Chamboko Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender and development approach to reducing gender-based violence <p>This paper examines the main causes of gender-based violence (GBV) in tertiary institutions and finds ways of reducing the phenomenon in these institutions. The context of higher learning, in which women are under-represented in positions of authority and lectureship, and the structural inequalities, increase gender-based violence in tertiary institutions. Unequal power relations, and the cultural values, that operate on a patriarchal system are the primary cause of inequality leading to gender-based violence even in institutions of higher learning. In a patriarchal society, women are perceived as perpetual minors who cannot take independent decisions. That alone promotes male superiority. Gender equality cannot be achieved without considering the issue of equity. The absence of Hunhu/Ubuntu, results in undesirable outcomes such as sexual harassment in schools, colleges, and universities. True Ubuntu recognizes differences, and hence, always strives to strike consensus. Ubuntu makes a fundamental contribution to indigenous ‘ways of knowing and being’ and is ‘based on the primary values of intense humanness, caring, sharing, and respect. A holistic approach to promoting gender equity and equality will help combat gender-based violence in institutions of higher learning. Mainstreaming a gender perspective at all stages is important. Gender mainstreaming involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparations, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and programmes. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach to addressing issues of power relations is very critical. The GAD approach seeks to correct systems and mechanisms that produce gender inequality by focusing not only on women but by assessing the social status of both women and men. The paper advocates for gender policies that are not just gender-sensitive but gender-responsive - policies that seek to promote zero tolerance of GBV.</p> Irene Muzvidziwa Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The nexus between university gender policy and gender-based violence: A social relations approach to gender policy analysis at institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe <p>Gender-Based Violence(GBV) is a phenomenon that affects society negatively and its impact is heavier on women than men in all developmental settings. While much has been said about this phenomenon at international, regional, and national conventions, agreements, and protocols, statistics show that instead of decreasing the incidence is even rising. Possible policy interventions have been tabled for implementation but minimal achievement has been recorded if comparison is made to the size of the problem. This study uses a gender analysis approach to establish why the implemented gender policies have been less effective in reducing the occurrence of GBV at institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe. The gender analysis tool employed is Naila Kabeer’s (1994) Social relations approach. Only two concepts (i. Social Relations and ii. Institutional Analysis) from Naila Kabeer’s Social Relations Approach were operationalised. The study established that GBV prevails as an outcome of gaps linked to organisational social relations. These relations play a key role in the incidence of gender-based violence and the perpetuation of gender inequality in these institutions. The study is of the view that robust gender policy analysis at institutions of higher learning is an urgent imperative so that deep-seated social relations that incubate motivations for GBV are exposed and properly addressed. Gender-based violence is cancer that is feeding on unattended gender social relations resulting in the increase of this vice. The study recommends the need for more frequent gender policy analysis if policy objectives regarding gender equality are to be achieved. The use of the social relations approach as a tool for such an analysis is highly recommended.</p> Nyevero Maruzani Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Thu, 03 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Foreword to The Dyke Special Issue 4, Gender <p>The Midlands State University Gender Institute hosted a Conference from the 5th to the 6th of October 2022, themed Combating Gender-Based Violence in Tertiary Institutions resulting in the production of this special issue of The Dyke Journal. Herein are a collection of research-based papers on Gender-Based Violence and Sexual Harassment in Institutions of Higher Learning in Zimbabwe. In this Special Issue, 4 of The Dyke Journal, are articles authored by researchers from universities polytechnics, and a teacher education college in Zimbabwe. In their quest to create awareness of the importance of gender in research in higher education, the authors tackle Gender Based Violence (GBV) and Sexual Harassment (SH), a specific form of GBV, in Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Zimbabwe.</p> Umali Saidi Copyright (c) 2023 The Dyke Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000