The Dyke <p>The Dyke is a refereed journal that publishes original articles from the fields of Social Sciences, Business Sciences, Arts &amp; Humanities and Education.</p> en-US (Dr. U. Saidi) (Dr. H. Mangeya) Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Ecotourism success story in Zimbabwe: The case of Tsholotsho CAMPFIRE project <p>This study exposes the untold success story of Zimbabwe's eco-tourism projects. Literature is awash with publications on the failure by Zimbabwe to come up with, and run sustainable ecotourism projects that significantly benefit the community with very little or no effort being put on telling the positive side of the ecotourism story. It is against this background that the researchers, using an exploratory design, investigated the story of the Ngamo CAMPFIRE project in Tsholotsho to establish the nature, and extent of its contribution to the environmental, socio-cultural and economic well-being of the local community. A qualitative research methodology <br />was adopted which involved interviews with key informants (headman, Rural District Council [RDC] representative, headmaster), and panel discussions with local residents. The study revealed that indeed tourism has significantly impacted the livelihoods of people in Tsholotsho especially in the Ngamo settlements which share a boundary with Hwange National Park. The key benefits include the construction of schools, employment, and training of local guides, scholarship programs, to mention just a few. The researchers recommended that other CAMPFIRE projects take a leaf from this project.</p> Oliver Chikuta, Felicity Ncube, Mark Russell Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of demographic variables on workplace surveillance levels amongst a sample of public service employees in Zimbabwe. <p><strong>Orientation:</strong> The study is located in an organisation responsible for the administration of the Zimbabwean border posts. The nature of its business calls for the use of surveillance to curb criminal activities. Research Purpose: The study examines how workplace surveillance affects employees based on their demographic differences. <br /><strong>Motivation of the Study</strong>: Smuggling is rife at Zimbabwe border posts depriving the state of revenue while exposing the civil society to smuggled goods. The use of workplace surveillance is critical in managing such illegal activities but the employer needs not infringe employee rights to privacy. <span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"><strong>Research Design, Approach and Method</strong>: The research follows a survey research design, and a quantitative research approach using a positivism research philosophy. Data collection amongst a sample of 364 respondents was possible through Survey </span>Monkey. Data analysis comprised of descriptive and inferential statistics. In particular, the study utilised Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal Wallis tests. <br /><strong>Main Findings:</strong> The study found that demographic variables that have an impact on workplace surveillance are employee age, education and computer use experience while gender, work experience, work role, and time spent on the internet do not. Practical/Managerial Implications: The employer needs to understand that employees appreciate the business importance of workplace surveillance and there is a need to involve them in such decisions. Management also needs to ensure that such surveillance does not thwart employee privacy rights. <br /><strong>Contribution or value-add:</strong> The study contributes to the body of knowledge by noting that employee age, education and computer use experience demographic variables have an impact on workplace surveillance while gender, work experience, work role, and time spent on the internet do not.</p> Fidelis Tsvangirai Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An analysis of the role of the school in teaching democratic values: A case of three selected primary schools in Shamva district, Zimbabwe <p>The role of schools is critical in the effective teaching of democratic values in learners worldwide. The effective role of the schools should be reflected through the products churned out to the community. This study was necessitated by the continual abuse of democratic values by school leavers in Shamva district before, during and after elections despite the expected role of the schools. Though the study is cognisant of the possibilities of other factors influencing the output of school graduates, the study wonders if schools really teach democratic values as enshrined in the curriculum, basing on the noted behaviour by school leavers. This paper examines the role of primary schools in promoting democratic values of justice, equality and liberty in pupils in Shamva district, Zimbabwe. Using a qualitative approach, the study is located within the interpretivist research paradigm. A case study design was adopted, and three primary schools in the Shamva district were purposefully, and conveniently selected for this study. The study was underpinned by Rogan and Grayson’s theory of curriculum implementation and reconstructionism theories. The findings of the study revealed that schools had challenges in teaching democratic values to learners. Challenges included difficulties in interpreting the syllabi on the teaching of democratic values in learners; community challenges regarding democratic values viewed as sensitive content usually misconstrued to be favouring certain political agendas and lack of clear-cut democratic values in the curriculum framework to guide teachers on teaching democratic values. Some of the recommendations were that teachers should be protected by legal instruments to enable them to freely teach sensitive content. Teachers also need empowerment in syllabus interpretation on the teaching of democratic values to be able to effectively promote the teaching of democratic values.</p> Joseph Dzavo, Simon K. Luggyab, Magdeline N. Tanga Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role and commercialisation of indigenous knowledge in the control of Covid-19 pandemic <p>Coronavirus has been one of the most feared, and dangerous diseases, which killed thousands of people, if not millions, across the world. The disease caused many challenges such as low economic growth, deaths, closure of schools, and even worsened poverty and vulnerability across the globe. The disease is caused by a virus and has no cure yet. In an effort to mitigate health challenges indigenous knowledge systems have been reached out to as a panacea to control the pandemic; witnessing a paradigm shift from scientific to indigenous systems. It has been proven in many African countries like Cameroon, Madagascar, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to be one of the best ways to control coronavirus given the high recovery rates from those infected. Therefore, the paper's objective is to assess the role and commercialisation of indigenous knowledge in controlling the Covid-19 pandemic. A comprehensive search of the literature was undertaken to come up with a published paper on indigenous knowledge used to control Covid-19. Interviews and questionnaires were also used to collect data on indigenous knowledge by local people. The results show that Z<em>umbani</em> (<em>Lippia Javanica) </em>use became popular in countries like Zimbabwe, with almost everyone using it either in tea, drinks, porridge or steaming in an effort to control the disease. It is believed that <em>Lippia Javanica</em> contains high zinc content that fights against the virus, reduces viral replication, and boosts the human immune system. Other common trees include <em>Sclerocarya birrea</em> due to its high vitamin C content in fruit skin and <em>Moringa</em> (<em>Moringa oliefera),</em> an immune booster. Several people were using indigenous knowledge in fighting against Covid-19 with few in rural areas adopting the use of scientific methods. It can be concluded that the indigenous knowledge system was highly adopted by people in fighting against Covid-19. </p> Andrew Tapiwa Kugedera, Nyasha Sakadzo, Taona Museva, Letticia Kudzai Kokerai, Gibson Muridzi, Ashel Musaraf Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Tue, 12 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A blessing in disguise? Political branding through covid-19 pandemic in Tanzania <p>Like other brands in the market, politicians and political parties constantly brand themselves to influence consumer (voter) behaviour. Through political advertising, political brands are established and maintained in order to establish a clear difference from one another. Normally, this takes place irrespective of time and context. This article analyses political branding strategies adopted by Tanzanian politicians during the covid-19 pandemic. The analysis covers all branding cases of both individuals and parties as reported through their Facebook accounts and those of influential partisans between March and May 2020, the months that mark the start and end of covid-19 reporting in Tanzania in 2020. Coverage is made for two of Tanzania's major parties as of 2020, namely Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA). The analysis was made in line with branding features such as names, symbols, signs, and slogans as per political advertising and branding strategies. Results show that branding was made for both individual politicians and parties. Human and party brands were advertised through their aid to the economically disadvantaged population during the covid-19 pandemic, with the aim of establishing public attraction to their brands. The study uses the rational choice theory to link advertising to the political choices the public makes. Both individuals and parties labelled all their aids, especially masks and sanitisers, with their names, colours, and slogans. Some advertisements of their aids were accompanied by explanations that openly said why a party or an individual was a better choice than all others, explicitly showing their political motives. The article concludes that any event, irrespective of the impacts on the wider population, can serve political purposes, especially branding. Disasters such as pandemics come with political blessings as they offer opportunities for parties and individuals to grow their traffic. The article recommends that political moves should always focus on service to humanity than fostering their political brands.</p> Festo Mulinda Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Tue, 12 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The serendipities of the covid-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe’s higher education institutions: A multiple case analysis. <p><em>­­­­­­­­­­­­­</em>This paper unearths the serendipities of the covid-19 pandemic in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of Zimbabwe. While acknowledging the unprecedented challenges of the covid-19 pandemic, and the ravaging effects it has brought on economies around the globe, the paper argues that there are notable positives that have been realised through the pandemic. To establish these fortunate and advantageous developments brought about by the covid-19 pandemic, a multiple qualitative case analysis of secondary data from seven universities in Zimbabwe was conducted. The universities are comprised of five public and two private universities. The data sources included university websites and repositories as well as government publications on the covid-19 pandemic. Findings of the study revealed that Zimbabwe’s HEIs realised certain fortunes which fulfilled the Education 5.0 curriculum thrust due to the covid-19 pandemic. One of the serendipities of the covid-19 pandemic reported in the study is that the pandemic strengthened online teaching and learning technologies and enhanced research and publication. Besides, Zimbabwe’s HEIs and industry developed a much closer and improved collaboration relationship in a bid to fight the scourge. From the study, it was also established that covid-19 serendipities were a conduit to innovation enhancement, achievement of the industrialisation agenda, and bridging of the gap between HEIs and communities. Further to this, the pandemic brought about brand improvement and institutional visibility, fulfilment and motivation of employees derived from the room accorded to creative thinking and saving of employee operational costs as a result of working from home. This study, therefore, views the covid-19 pandemic not from a detrimental perspective but as having introduced a new lease of life into Zimbabwe’s Higher Education Institutions’ Education 5.0 Agenda, which has far-reaching effects on the future, and even into post-covid-19 period. The pandemic made HEIs realise and exploit their potential and capabilities which were lying dormant and became enablers in the attainment of Education 5.0. However, future research on the serendipities of the covid-19 pandemic can be in the form of field research aimed at understanding the perceptions and feelings of lecturers in HEIs on their employers’ acknowledgement and recognition of their contribution in line with reciprocity theory.</p> Perfect Sianzovu, Bernard Chisiri, Maria P. Matyokurehwa, Itayi Zvawanda Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Fri, 15 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Positioning Africa in the global politics surrounding the covid-19 pandemic: A historical appraisal <p>The advent of covid-19 ushered in contestations bordering on racism, power and knowledge across the globe. This article grapples with racism as an overarching theme in the debates surrounding medical colonisation and the prevailing ‘vaccine diplomacy’ which have made Africa’s position in the geopolitical knowledge, socio-economic and scientific development, oblique. Racial domination and exploitation have occurred repeatedly throughout history wherever two distinct racial groups have established contact. A submission is made that African dignity and status were decimated by the dehumanising experiences at the hands of the white people which began with the transatlantic slave trade, followed by European colonisation and race-consciousness which emanated from the first two factors. The trend has continued this time under the garb of disruptive technologies through which Africans are being forced to adopt fabricated identities born of the covid-19 pandemic. As whites came to believe in their inherent superiority, the Africans sank into the paralysing belief of their own inferiority. The article demystifies the imperial logic that, it was the white men’s burden to civilise Africa by showing how colonialism and racism contributed toward the relegation of African scientific ingenuity into the abyss of scientific innovations. The western scientists’ prejudices against African metaphysics and epistemology amidst the claim that Africans’ intellectual capacity remains very limited are challenged.</p> Gilbert Tarugarira Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inclusion’ through professional ‘exclusion’: A phenomenon of preservice visually impaired teachers in tertiary institutions <p>The number of visually impaired students enrolled in higher education institutions is on the rise, and yet, teaching, learning and assessment remain an area of particular concern to their inclusion. In Zimbabwe, the curriculum for higher education institutions has been crafted to offer equal access, and relevance, to all students but, it seems there is considerable confusion where administrators and lecturers in teacher-training feel unprepared, and unequipped to have visually impaired students in an inclusive class. Resultantly, pre-service visually impaired trainee teachers seem to be systematically left raw in teacher professional standards development. This<br />qualitative study, therefore, explores the experiences of visually impaired pre-service trainee teachers in Zimbabwe teacher training institutions. Multiple case study designs were adopted to facilitate data triangulation. A sample of 30 participants comprising administrators, lecturers and visually impaired pre-service trainee teachers was purposively drawn from inclusive teacher training institutions. Data was generated through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. It emerged from the study that, the instructional approaches used to convey the content, the curricular materials and the assessment mechanism were esoteric and visually impaired pre-service trainee teachers were not professionally equipped with teacher professional standards. It is recommended that tertiary institution administrators and lecturers must continuously be trained in inclusive education practices so as to equip them with the requisite skills and knowledge to meet the diverse professional standard needs and interests of the visually impaired pre-service trainee teachers.</p> Phillimon Mahanya, Barbra Z. Podzo Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Primary school teachers’ views of the use of gender-neutral language to enhance gender equality in schools <p>Language plays an important role in shaping, and directing behaviour. Feminists argue that the use of gendered language has consequences for relations, and relative status of male and female learners in the education system because it is used to maintain, and reinforce sexism. Language can, therefore, be used to influence gender status. Schools are linguistic environments flooded with gendered language that can influence the development of gender roles. Teachers as key players in this environment play a very important role in cultivating gender equality values through using, and teaching, gender-neutral language. This study explores views by primary school teachers on the use and teaching of gender-neutral language as another frontier that can be used to promote gender equality values. The study is a descriptive survey which used questionnaires and interviews to collect data from 30 randomly sampled primary school teachers in Gweru urban district (Zimbabwe). The results showed that most teachers were not aware that a language is a strong tool which can be effectively used to influence gender equality. However, they supported the use of gender-neutral language as an effective tool in promoting gender equality. The study recommended that teachers should be exemplary in their use of gender-neutral language, and should encourage learners to use gender-neutral language. It is further recommended that gender-neutral language should be a component of language teaching in schools and that primary school textbooks should also be conscious of gender-neutral language too.</p> Richard Nyika, Tambawoga Chriswell Muchena Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Sun, 08 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Harnessing indigenous knowledge systems in managing the covid-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe <p>The covid-19 pandemic has led to various impacts on the health, economy and social well-being of people, globally. As no cure is yet to be found for the disease, the world can only rely on vaccines to contain its spread. What is disturbing though is that some of these vaccines have been received with much scepticism by some people. There have been various controversies, and conspiracy theories, pertaining to vaccines as there are suspicions that the availed vaccines will further spread the disease as a deliberate way of exterminating humanity. As such, some people are naturally hesitant to take the vaccines. Instead of taking the vaccines, some people have since turned to indigenous remedies based on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) in a bid to boost their immune systems, as well as to curb the effects brought by the covid-19 pandemic. Despite the fact that some people in Africa in general, and Zimbabwe in particular, have turned to IKS, its efficacy has generated a lot of controversy due to the enduring nature of coloniality of power, and knowledge, which has always denigrated African healing systems, and elevated western scientific medicines. This paper illuminates the greater capability with which IKS can combat, manage and alleviate the impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe. We consider this against the backdrop of a collapsed healthcare system in the country exacerbated by a serious brain drain because of poor working conditions. The argument is that herbal medicines are the backbone of poorly resourced healthcare systems, including those in Zimbabwe. If indigenous healing interventions have been used in communities for centuries in the past to treat various ailments, it is our conviction that these can still be useful today. Due to mobility challenges emanating from the covid-19 induced lockdowns, this study is qualitative wherein data was collected through desktop research coupled with intermittent telephonic and face-to-face interviews.</p> Theresa Zibengwa, Mangiza Owen, Muguti Tsasara Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Book Review: The political life of an epidemic: Cholera, crisis and citizenship in Zimbabwe –Simukai Chigudu, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2020, pp.346. <p>Zooming in on the cholera outbreak of 2008-09, Simukai Chigudu explores the social and political origins of the epidemic which, arguably, was historically and politically manufactured. Chigudu reasons that the cholera epidemic was not isolated, ‘shocking’ moment; instead, it was the final stage of drawn-out, contingent processes rooted in questions of political economy such as the inadequate delivery of public goods, and failing livelihood strategies and profound social inequalities. Drawing from the fields of sociology of disasters, critical medical anthropology and the anthropology of citizenship, Chigudu uses cholera to show how the epidemic unfolded in the urban centres, its social impact, official and communal responses to it, and the epidemic’s afterlives in civic and public life. By examining, and studying the cholera epidemic, Chigudu sheds light on the politics of urban health, notions of citizenship in postcolonial Zimbabwe, social and political humanitarian aid.</p> Jefferson Ndimande Copyright (c) 2022 The Dyke Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000